Vad händer med det gemensamma europeiska asylsystemet (CEAS) kopplat till att Storbritannien lämnar EU? Får AMIF en ny målgrupp nu?
I en forskningskrönika ger Eleni Karageorgiou, PhD Candidate vid Lunds universitets juridiska fakultet, oss sin bild av hur Storbritanniens folkomröstning påverkar, eller inte påverkar, EUs gemensamma asylsystem. Krönikan är skriven på engelska.
The UK is covered by special arrangements permitting it to opt-in on a case by case basis to EU measures relating to asylum, immigration and border management. The consequences of a UK withdrawal from the EU are not likely to be significant for the functioning of CEAS. At the moment the UK is bound by the first-phase measures of the CEAS and the Dublin rules. A UK withdrawal would mean that the UK would not be bound by any of the CEAS instruments. The UK could potentially re-negotiate its participation to the Dublin system with the EU, since it has benefited substantially by the Dublin system. It remains to be seen whether such negotiations or any transitional arrangements will eventually take place.
One of the most profound consequences of Brexit will be that, as from ‘the leave date’, all UK citizens will become third-country nationals for the purposes of EU law. They will be deprived of their European citizenship as well as all the rights and freedoms attached to it in the relevant EU legislation. This means that the conditions for entry and residence in the Union and its remaining Member States’ will fall within the scope of the EU’s and each Member State’s immigration legislation. The loss of EU citizenship (rights) is estimated to affect around 690,000 UK citizens residing in other EU member states. Conversely, the fact that the UK will no longer fall within the scope of European citizenship will potentially affect approximately 2.9 million European citizens currently residing in the UK.
Facts: What is CEAS? A work-in-progress
The CEAS is a body of rules and mechanisms that regulate asylum in the EU (Art. 78 TFEU).
The foundations of CEAS were put in Tampere in 1999, where EU Member States committed themselves to create a harmonized European asylum framework in accordance with international standards. CEAS is a rather dynamic field of EU legislative activity which has undergone a major reform in 2013 while a second one is underway.
In an effort to address the problem of the uneven distribution of asylum seekers and refugees amongst EU states -particularly exposed by the increased refugee movements in the EU in 2015, the EU adopted the Council Decisions 2015/1523 and 2015/1601 which provide for the temporary and exceptional relocation, over two years, from Italy and Greece to other Member States of 160,000 persons in clear need of protection, as well as the EU-Turkey statement (18 March 2016) according to which Turkey committed to readmit migrants who have not applied for asylum in Greece or whose application has been found ‘inadmissible’ in exchange for the visa liberalization for Turkish citizens. The implementation of these measures so far, has raised serious questions pertaining to international and regional human rights standards.